Arthur S. Eddington (28 December 1882–22 November 1944) was an English astrophysicist. One of his major findings was the Bending of Light: Light bends in the presence of bodies with large masses. The amount of this shift had been calculated by Albert Einstein as double the value accounted for by Newton’s theory of gravitation.
During a solar eclipse on 29 May 1919, Eddington and his team confirmed the deflection of light by seeing the outward shift of the stars (as shown below) and found values near those predicted by Einstein. This provided evidence for the theory of General Relativity.
Eddington was also known for developing the first cosmological models that used the theory of relativity, and he contributed significantly to studies on the thermodynamic structure of the stars. He attempted to elaborate a unified theory capable of joining microphysics and macrophysics, seeking to obtain fundamental physical constants through deduction.
Outside of mathematical physics, Eddington wrote on scientific epistemology, developing a neo-Kantian inspired deductive-idealist vision of the scientific method. In his work “The Nature of the Physical World” he wrote:
“It is essential to our faith in a theory that its predictions should accord with observation, unless a reasonable explanation of the discrepancy is forthcoming, so that it is highly important that Einstein’s law should have survived these delicate astronomical tests in which Newton’s law just failed. But our main reason for rejecting Newton’s law is not its imperfect accuracy as shown by these tests; it is because it does not contain the kind of information about Nature that we want to know now that we have an ideal before us which was not in Newton’s mind at all. We can put it this way. Astronomical observations show that within certain limits of accuracy both Einstein’s and Newton’s laws are true. we are confirming a statement as to what the appearances would be when referred to one particular space-time frame. No reason is given for attaching any fundamental importance to this frame. In confirming (approximately) Einstein’s law, we are confirming a statement about the absolute properties of the world, true for all space-time frames. For those who are trying to get beneath the appearances, Einstein’s statement necessarily supersedes Newton’s; it extracts from the observations a result with physical meaning as opposed to a mathematical curiosity.” 
Eddington was also a teacher of Georges Lemaître (1894–1966), but did not like Lemaitre’s “theory of the Primeval Atom” (we call it today Big Bang theory) as he wrote in Nature in 1931. Lemaitre provided an answer in the article: “The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory.” Lemaitre started with these words:
“Sir Arthur Eddington states that, philosophically, the notion of a beginning of the present order of Nature is repugnant to him. I would rather be inclined to think that the present state of quantum theory suggests a beginning of the world very different from the present order of Nature. Thermodynamical principles from the point of view of quantum theory may be stated as follows : (1) Energy of constant total amount is distributed in discrete quanta. (2) The number of distinct quanta is ever increasing. If we go back in the course of time we must find fewer and fewer quanta, until we find all the energy of the universe packed in a few or even in a unique quantum…” 
 Eddington, Arthur S. The Nature of the Physical World: Gifford Lectures of 1927. Ed. H.G. Callaway (Newsastle, GB: Cambridge Scholars, 2014), 126-127.
 Lemaitre, Georges. “The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory.” Nature 127, 706 (9 May 1931). Image: São Tomé and Príncipe stamp.